What is the Stock Market?
The term stock market refers to several exchanges in which
shares of publicly held companies are bought and sold. Such
financial activities are conducted through formal exchanges and
via over-the-counter (OTC) marketplaces that operate under a
defined set of regulations.
Both “stock market” and “stock exchange” are often used interchangeably. Traders in the stock market buy or sell shares on one or more of the stock exchanges that are part of the overall stock market.
The leading U.S. stock exchanges include the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) and the Nasdaq.
- Stock markets are venues where buyers and sellers meet to exchange equity shares of public corporations.
- Stock markets are components of a free-market economy because they enable democratized access to investor trading and exchange of capital.
- Stock markets create efficient price discovery and efficient dealing.
- The U.S. stock market is regulated by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and local regulatory bodies.
Understanding the Stock Market
The stock market allows buyers and sellers of securities to
meet, interact, and transact. The markets allow for price
discovery for shares of corporations and serve as a barometer
for the overall economy. Buyers and sellers are assured of a
fair price, high degree of liquidity, and transparency as market
participants compete in the open market.
The first stock market was the London Stock Exchange which began in a coffeehouse, where traders met to exchange shares, in 1773.
The first stock exchange in the United States began in Philadelphia in 1790.
The Buttonwood Agreement, so named because it was signed under a buttonwood tree, marked the beginning of New York’s Wall Street in 1792. The agreement was signed by 24 traders and was the first American organization of its kind to trade in securities. The traders renamed their venture the New York Stock and Exchange Board in 1817.
A stock market is a regulated and controlled environment. In the United States, the main regulators include the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA).
The earliest stock markets issued and dealt in paper-based physical share certificates. Today, stock markets operate electronically.
How the Stock Market Works
Stock markets provide a secure and regulated environment where
market participants can transact in shares and other eligible
financial instruments with confidence, with zero to low
operational risk. Operating under the defined rules as stated by
the regulator, the stock markets act as primary markets and
As a primary market, the stock market allows companies to issue and sell their shares to the public for the first time through the process of an initial public offering (IPO). This activity helps companies raise necessary capital from investors.
A company divides itself into several shares and sells some of those shares to the public at a price per share.
To facilitate this process, a company needs a marketplace where these shares can be sold and this is achieved by the stock market. A listed company may also offer new, additional shares through other offerings at a later stage, such as through rights issues or follow-on offerings. They may even buy back or delist their shares.
Investors will own company shares in the expectation that share value will rise or that they will receive dividend payments or both. The stock exchange acts as a facilitator for this capital-raising process and receives a fee for its services from the company and its financial partners.
Using the stock exchanges, investors can also buy and sell securities they already own in what is called the secondary market.
The stock market or exchange maintains various market-level and sector-specific indicators, like the S&P (Standard & Poor’s) 500 index and the Nasdaq 100 index, which provide a measure to track the movement of the overall market.
What Are the Functions of a Stock Market?
The stock market ensures price transparency, liquidity, price
discovery, and fair dealings in trading activities.
The stock market guarantees all interested market participants have access to data for all buy and sell orders, thereby helping in the fair and transparent pricing of securities. The market also ensures efficient matching of appropriate buy and sell orders.
Stock markets need to support price discovery where the price of any stock is determined collectively by all of its buyers and sellers. Those qualified and willing to trade should get instant access to place orders and the market ensures that the orders are executed at a fair price. Traders on the stock market include market makers, investors, traders, speculators, and hedgers. An investor may buy stocks and hold them for the long term, while a trader may enter and exit a position within seconds. A market maker provides necessary liquidity in the market, while a hedger may trade in derivatives.
How Stock Markets Are Regulated
Most nations have a stock market, and each is regulated by a
local financial regulator or monetary authority, or institute.
The SEC is the regulatory body charged with overseeing the U.S.
The SEC is a federal agency that works independently of the government and without political pressure. The mission of the SEC is stated as “protecting investors, maintaining fair, orderly, and efficient markets, and facilitating capital formation.”
8 Companies listed on the stock market exchanges are regulated, and their dealings are monitored by the SEC. In addition, the exchanges set certain requirements such as mandating timely filing of quarterly financial reports and instant reporting of relevant corporate developments, to ensure that all market participants are equally informed. Failure to adhere to the regulations can lead to suspension of trading and other disciplinary measures.